F.A.Q.2019-07-30T09:22:54+00:00

F.A.Q.

Which is the frequency of the control loop?2019-07-26T10:18:18+00:00

TALOS’ Torque control has a low latency of 1kHz.

Is there a full state estimation of the robot available to the controllers?2019-07-24T11:01:27+00:00

We provide a state estimation from IMU+kinematics out-of-the-box, a system for fusing this odometry with additional external measurements should be tackled with an additional estimator out of the real-time ros_control loop. This would be safer for the whole body torque control that rely on the CoM estimation.

Which programming languages does it use?2019-07-24T11:01:16+00:00

At PAL Robotics we mostly use C++ and Python. As the REEM-C OS is a standard Ubuntu LTS, our customers can use other programming languages.

How is TIAGo Base integrated in my environment?2019-07-24T11:00:51+00:00

A RESTful API is provided to integrators and end-users to handily integrate our AMRs with your ERP or business’ internal system. This way, you can command your fleet of TIAGo Bases from the same software you use to have everything under control.

If you have any further questions about logistics automation and software integration, contact us!

How does StockBot work?2019-07-24T11:00:22+00:00
  1. The environment is mapped
  2. Inventory areas are defined through the web GUI
  3. The desired number of inventories are scheduled in the web GUI
  4. StockBot will autonomously do the inventories according to the configuration set
What type of warranty does the robot have?2019-07-24T11:00:02+00:00

The robot has 1 year warranty on hardware. An additional 12 months of warranty extension is offered as an option.

Which sensors are available through ros_control?2019-07-24T11:01:23+00:00

Via ros_control, you have access to the encoders, IMU, and temperature sensors of the robots.

What is the onboard computing power?2019-07-24T11:01:12+00:00

The humanoid robot has 2 onboard intel i7 computers, one for multimedia and the other for control. It is also possible to have an NVIDIA® Jetson™ TX2 module integrated into REEM-C if you need.

Can we first conduct a pilot in my facilities?2019-07-24T11:00:46+00:00

Sure! Contact us and we will design a proof of concept so you can first test the mobile robots in your own home. See for yourself the advantages of having TIAGo Bases that boost your productivity!

What can I do with the products’ location?2019-07-24T11:00:18+00:00

Knowing your products’ location gives you an exhaustive knowledge of your store’s performance and gives you the information you need to improve it. With StockBot’s data, you can daily:

  • Detect misplaced products
  • Detect out-of-stock situations
  • Analyze your products’ distribution effectiveness
  • Take data-driven decisions
  • Check the end-caps distribution (with the StockBot that uses vision cameras)
  • Enable planogram checking (with the StockBot that uses vision cameras)
  • …And more!

Contact us and we will assess you how to make the most of your store!

Which languages and voices are supported?2019-07-24T10:59:58+00:00

TIAGo comes with one language and one voice that can be selected from this list. Additional languages or voices can be added under customer demand.

Is the dynamical model of the robot provided?2019-07-24T11:01:20+00:00

Yes, the URDF includes CoM position, mass and inertia tensors. This model has been extracted from the CAD and it was validated by the full body inverse dynamics and torque control on the robot.

What is Whole-Body Control?2019-07-24T11:01:02+00:00

From a user point of view the Whole Body Control software package enables easy and safe commanding of the end effectors of the robot by just specifying where you want it to be in real world coordinates.

The Whole Body Control software package is a quadratic hierarchical solver working at 200 Hz implemented by PAL Robotics providing on-line inverse kinematics of the whole robot body. The solver is given a stack of tasks with different priorities. An example of stack of task is the following one:

Whole Body Control
In this example, the Whole Body Controller is able to bring the end-effector to any desired pose in the cartesian space and to keep the gaze of the robot towards a desired point (this could be the user defined tasks) and the solutions to accomplish these lower priority tasks would always avoid joints limits and prevent self-collisions (these higher priority tasks would be included for safety).

Note that standard inverse kinematics solvers are not able to deal with joint limit and self-collisions avoidance, which are of key importance when commanding the robot.

How can I control TIAGo Base?2019-07-24T11:00:43+00:00

You can choose the option that suits your needs best:
Use our intuitive Web GUI, compatible with multiple devices (tablet, computer, mobile, etc).
Integrate our AMRs with your ERP or internal management system. We can provide you or your integrator a RESTful API for a straightforward integration.

And you’re ready to go!

Can StockBot perform inventories around customers?2019-07-24T11:00:14+00:00

Sure! StockBot was born to adapt to all that happens inside of a store. Taking inventory while the store is open, with people around, is how StockBot works most of the time. Its advanced navigation system enables the robot to detect any person around, or to update its map if the furniture distribution is modified.
Get in touch with us to learn more.

Is it possible to monitor the battery status?2019-07-24T10:59:55+00:00

Yes.

What do I need to have a REEM-C in my lab?2019-07-24T11:00:58+00:00

You need a safety crane to hold the robot when switched off. You also need as many workstations as you wish to develop new algorithms and deploy them on the robot.

Can I use a fleet of TIAGo Bases?2019-07-24T11:00:40+00:00

Sure! You can even combine diverse configurations of TIAGo Bases within your fleet according to your needs. We provide a Fleet Control Software to assign tasks, optimize routes, perform traffic control and enable analytics. Ask us for more details or if you have any special request!

How is StockBot configured?2019-07-24T11:00:10+00:00

StockBot is set up in your facilities in a single day, when our team maps the store area and integrates the robot into your store’s inventory system. After that, you can easily define the areas of interest and forbidden areas in StockBot’s intuitive web GUI. As simple as this!

What are the main advantages of TIAGo with respect to other similar robots?2019-07-24T10:57:46+00:00

PAL Robotics has been developing robotic platforms for research since 2004. Its main developments include the two humanoid robots REEM and REEM-C, and TIAGo inherits all the technology and robustness resulting from years of development and extensive use of the robots. PAL Robotics designs all the mechanics and electronics of its robots in a modular way, integrating high quality components like Harmonic Drive reducers in the arm motors and CAN bus for communication between electronic components. The CAN bus is more robust than other buses like RS-485 as it includes the data link layer of the OSI model and handles better faults and collisions.
PAL Robotics provides more than just a hardware platform. The company is integrating all its software in ROS since 2011. Building blocks of software and comprehensive documentation is provided to the customers in order to start working with the robots and obtaining results in a short time. Furthermore, for those who want low level access to the hardware, support is provided in order to do so. Software packages including autonomous navigation, perception, manipulation and HRI are provided.In order to enlarge the lifetime of our robots PAL Robotics provides extended warranty options and maintenance plans.

How many languages can REEM-C speak?2019-07-24T11:00:54+00:00

The REEM-C robot can speak over 30 languages.

Can TIAGo Base work 24/7?2019-07-24T11:00:37+00:00

Yes, you can program TIAGo Base to work the hours your business needs. Once it fulfills all the tasks assigned, TIAGo Base will go back to its dock station and recharge while waiting for a new command.

If the mobile robot runs out of battery in the middle of a task, our Fleet Control Software can autonomously send another TIAGo Base to take it over, ensuring a constant production flow.

Tell us how many deliveries you need in your production line, your warehouse, or your company, and we can give you accurate details on that!

How does it charge?2019-07-24T11:00:06+00:00

StockBot goes to recharge in its dock station autonomously after completing an inventory. The robot can run up to 12 hours continuously before going to the dock station, and completely recharges in 4 hours.

How long is the autonomy of TIAGo?2019-07-24T10:59:51+00:00

Depending on the activity the robot has 4-5 hours of autonomy with one battery and 6-10 hours with 2 batteries.

Do I need to modify my environment?2019-07-24T11:00:30+00:00

You can leave your space as it is, the TIAGo Base doesn’t need any guide, track, or requirements to autonomously navigate and perform the deliveries.

TIAGo Base is an Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR) and uses an advanced set of sensors and software to safely navigate without following any guide. This is a huge step ahead from the traditional AGVs.

TIAGo Base’s Artificial Intelligence generates the most efficient route to reach its delivery point, which is flexible and can change according to the production/business needs. People and other mobile elements, can safely move around it and even cross its way.

How precise does StockBot locate items in space?2019-07-24T11:00:06+00:00

StockBot locates products with a precision of 0.5 m.

Which kind of joint encoders has the arm?2019-07-24T10:59:47+00:00

All the joints have motor side incremental and link side absolute encoders.

How does TIAGo Base communicate with my environment?2019-07-24T11:00:25+00:00

You can use Wi-Fi or any other wireless technology that you need. Contact us for further details!

How precise is the arm?2019-07-24T10:59:43+00:00

The modules of the arm have absolute 12-bit encoders and high quality Harmonic Drive reducers with 0 backlash and low friction which provide an accuracy of 0.087º.

How does StockBot communicate with my ERP?2019-07-25T08:54:17+00:00

We integrate the data generated by the robot into the ERP of the customer, adapting to any API provided.

Which tasks are better suited for the 5-finger hand?2019-07-24T10:59:38+00:00

The hey5 hand performs best in Human-Robot Interaction tasks, like hand shaking, and grasping deformable objects.

Do I need a special RFID?2019-07-25T08:54:13+00:00

The RFID is the following: EPC global UHF Class 1 Gen 2 / ISO 18000-6C.

What is the minimum configuration of TIAGo?2019-07-24T10:59:35+00:00

TIAGo uses the TIAGo Base mobile platform. You may acquire a TIAGo Base and later on ask PAL Robotics to evolve it to any other TIAGo robot configuration. You can check all configuration options in the TIAGo robot builder or in the TIAGo Datasheet.

Where can I find videos showing the capabilities of TIAGo ?2019-07-24T10:59:31+00:00

You can watch videos of TIAGo in action through the following YouTube TIAGo Playlist. In here you will find TIAGo robot used for many research projects, robotics competitions or showing specific features. Enjoy!

How easy is to attach our own end-effector?2019-07-24T10:59:27+00:00

Two ways of integrating third-party end-effector are possible:

  • Integration of a CANopen end-effector: the wrist exposes a CAN bus connector and PAL provides the drawings of the mounting part. Then, the customer can design the required mechanical part to attach the end-effector to the wrist and connect to the bus.
  • Integration of an end-effector using another communication bus: in this case the customer can design the mechanical part to attach the end-effector to the wrist and use external cabling to connect to one of the ports provided in the laptop tray user panel (i.e. 1x USB 2.0, 1x USB 3.0 and 2x GigE ports) and the power supply (12 V, 5 A).

Furthermore, PAL Robotics offers customization and integration services to help the customer to integrate other end-effectors.

Can TIAGo be used for dexterous manipulation?2019-07-24T10:59:23+00:00

Yes. Both the parallel gripper and the 5-finger hand (hey5) can detect when an object is grasped by monitoring the current consumption of its motors. Furthermore, the hey5 hand is underactuated, it has 19 degrees of freedom and 3 motors, so that it adapts to the shape of the objects.Thanks to the 6-axis force/torque sensor on the wrist, forces and motions in manipulation tasks can be precisely controlled.

Are the hey5 hand and the parallel gripper inter-changeable?2019-07-24T10:59:20+00:00

Yes. They use the same mounting connector and the same interface.The process for interchanging the end effectors in TIAGo is very easy and fast.

What are the deepest levels of interfacing to the hardware?2019-07-24T10:59:10+00:00

The driver of the robot is written all as components.
The
ros_control architecture gives easy access to the hardware using standard ROS interfaces. The interface to the robot hardware are simple Orocos ports that have vector message types corresponding to each joint, to command position, velocity, current or read the mentioned values. If you don’t want to use ros_control you can always connect directly to these ports.

What is the “Whole Body Control” software?2019-07-24T10:59:05+00:00

From a user point of view the Whole Body Control software package enables easy and safe commanding of the end effector of the robot by just specifying where you want it to be in real world coordinates.
The Whole Body Control software package is a quadratic hierarchical solver working at 100 Hz implemented by PAL Robotics providing on-line inverse kinematics of the whole robot upper body (7 DoF arm, 2 DoF head and torso prismatic joint). The solver is given a stack of tasks with different priorities. An example of stack of task is the following one:
Whole Body Control
In this example, the Whole Body Controller is able to bring the end-effector to any desired pose in the cartesian space and to keep the gaze of the robot towards a desired point (this could be the user defined tasks) and the solutions to accomplish these lower priority tasks would always avoid joints limits and prevent self-collisions (these higher priority tasks would be included for safety).
Note that standard inverse kinematics solvers are not able to deal with joint limit and self-collisions avoidance, which are of key importance when commanding the robot.

Which force/torque sensor integrated between the wrist and the end-effector?2019-07-24T10:58:47+00:00

We integrate a 6-axis ATI mini-45 force/torque sensor.

Can the arm be set to a gravity compensation mode?2019-07-24T10:58:44+00:00

Yes. Thanks to the sensorless torque current control this option is provided with the robot for free. Furthermore, an online control switch is implemented, allowing the user to switch between different control modes instantly.

Does the robot have force control?2019-07-24T10:58:40+00:00

Yes. More specifically, an effort control API is provided.

Is the arm of the robot compliant?2019-07-24T10:58:36+00:00

Yes. Compliance in TIAGo’s arm is achieved by using two mechanisms:

  • Sensorless torque control: open-loop torque references are commanded. This is based on feedforward current control which is achieved thanks to the accurate model of the arm dynamics including mechanics, electronics cabling and covers and the low friction of the joints. This results in a high acceptable force control in the operational space.
  • Admittance control: using the data from the force/torque sensor of the wrist, positions can be commanded taking external forces into account obtaining even much better results than when using sensorless torque control.
Is it possible to add my own controllers to TIAGo?2019-07-24T10:58:32+00:00

Yes. The user only needs to create ros_control plugins to implement new controllers and add them to the ros_controllers or replace the desired ones. The new controllers will run in the real-time control loop and will have access to the full robot hardware interfaces exposed by ros_control.

What kind of controllers does TIAGo have?2019-07-24T10:58:27+00:00

The different motors of the robot can be controlled using ROS interfaces. All the controllers provided are implemented as plugins of ros_control and are contained in ros_controllers. All the controllers run in the real-time control loop and have access to the full robot hardware interfaces exposed by ros_control. The motors of TIAGo can be controlled in the following modes:

  • The wheels of the mobile base can be controlled through velocity mode.
  • The motor of the lifting torso and the two motors of the head can be controlled in position mode.
  • Finally, the motors of the arm can be controlled in position and in effort mode.
Which is the maximum speed of the arm?2019-07-24T10:58:22+00:00

The arm modules max speed is 100º/s.

Which motor does the arm of TIAGo have?2019-07-24T10:58:18+00:00

The arm is composed of the following motors:

  • 4x M90 modules. This self-contained hollow-shaft modules contain brushless DC motors with absolute encoders, integrated power and control electronics and Harmonic Drive reductions. The firmware of the electronic boards implement control PIDs for position, velocity and torque.
  • 1x M3D wrist with 3 DoF made of 3 brushed DC motors with absolute encoders and custom electronic boards. The embedded electronics provide control PIDs for position and velocity.

All the actuators of the arm use CAN-bus for communications. Furthermore, the modules and the wrist include a wide variety of self protection mechanisms (over-temperature, over-current, under-voltage, over-voltage, …).

Which software is included with TIAGo?2019-07-24T10:58:14+00:00

The robot is provided with a comprehensive list of software described here. Optional software packages can be obtained in order to get the most out of the robot, see here the list.

May I acquire a TIAGo Base mobile platform and, after some time, upgrade it to TIAGo?2019-07-24T10:58:10+00:00

Yes. We offer different upgrade possibilities so that you may ship your platform back to us whenever you want and we can transform it to any other TIAGo configuration.
We have a long history working with universities and understand that some of the budget might be available at different moments in time, we can adapt to this situation and offer upgrades on your TIAGo Base or TIAGo platform after acquiring it.

Can I purchase multiple robots?2019-07-24T10:58:05+00:00

Yes. Please contact our team at tiago@pal-robotics.com and we will help you along the purchase.

Do you have special offers for universities?2019-07-24T10:58:01+00:00

Yes, we have gone even further and have included the university discount already in the price of TIAGo, so we are providing university pricing for this platform.

Which bus does TIAGo use?2019-07-24T10:57:50+00:00

TIAGo has a CAN bus for communication between the electronic components. The CAN bus is more robust than other buses like RS-485 as it includes the data link layer of the OSI model and handles better faults and collisions.

Are the Hey5 hand and the parallel gripper interchangeable?2019-07-24T10:57:41+00:00

Yes. They use the same mounting connector and the same interface.The process for interchanging the end effectors in TIAGo is very easy and fast.

Is there a free simulation model of TIAGo?2019-07-24T10:57:35+00:00

Yes, TIAGo’s simulation is open-source and available for everyone. In order to use the public simulation model for Gazebo follow the instructions in http://wiki.ros.org/Robots/TIAGo.
We make a great effort on keeping our simulators up to date and having them work accurately, allowing for a very easy transition from simulation to the robot.

Do you have any other question or doubt? We will be happy to clarify anything you’d like to know!